“This government is acknowledged by all, to be one of enumerated powers.”
— Justice John Marshall
That’s a pretty simple concept isn’t it? We ‘numbered’ them. We ‘listed’ them. There’s nothing ‘implied’ about your powers, we either listed them or we didn’t. In fact the 9th and 10th Amendments say that if you don’t see it on the list, then its up to the States. I mean its hard to be more clear than that.
But modern Congresses have managed to screw it up. They know better. What our Founders did was put a paragraph header telling Congress, “When you do the things below, do it in such a way that benefits everyone. Don’t play favorites among the States.” They referred to this as ‘general welfare’. Modern Congresses took that to mean, “Ignore everything we just said, do whatever the hell you want.”
Its just so asinine they expect us to believe that crap. They now even refer to it as “the general welfare clause”. A clause in a contract falls under a paragraph and section, not as a header.